Plants for Salt and Brackish Marshes

Grasslike Species

Cladium mariscus spp. jamaicense (Sawgrass)

  • above mean high tide

  • <5 ppt salinity

Distichlis spicata (Saltgrass)

  • between mean high tide and spring tide

  • also high salinity wet depressions that are irregularly flooded

  • tolerates full to hyper-salinity (up to 50 ppt)

Juncus roemerianus (Black Needlerush)

  • between mean high tide and spring tide

  • up to 25 ppt salinity.  

Panicum amarum (Bitter Panicum)

  • above spring tide

  • tolerates full salinity (@35 ppt)

  • performs well in dry or moist sterile sands as well as fertile sites

Panicum virgatum (Switchgrass)

  • moist to dry soils

  • <5 ppt salinity

  • Needs fairly fertile soil

Spartina alterniflora (Smooth Cordgrass)

  • between mid-tide and mean high tide

  • tolerates full salinity (@35 ppt)

  • Spartina alterniflora is the ONLY salt marsh species that can be installed in areas that flood day after day

Spartina cynosuroides (Big Cordgrass)

  • between mean high tide and spring tide

  • up to 10 ppt salinity

Spartina patens (Saltmeadow Cordgrass)

  • between mean high tide and spring tide

  • tolerates full salinity (@35 ppt)

  • often found with Distichlis at the lower elevations of its range

Flowers

Borrichia frutescens (Sea Oxeye)

  • mean high tide to upland, may extend intertidal in some locations

  • tolerates full salinity (@35 ppt)

Hibiscus moscheutos (Swamp Rose Mallow)

  • above mean high tide

  • <5 ppt salinity

Kosteletzkya virginica (Saltmarsh Mallow)

  • above mean high tide

  • <5 ppt salinity

Solidago sempervirens (Seashore Goldenrod)

  • mean high tide to upland

  • up to 25 ppt salinity